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  Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) 15.11.2018 03:50 (UTC)
   
 

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

 Emir ve rica cümlelerinin dolaylı anlatımı yapılırken cümlenin geçmişi alınmaz. Rica etmek için “asked”, emir vermek için “told” kullanılır. Dolaylı anlatımı yapılacak cümleye “to” ile  başlanır.

 

 

I  asked

 

I told

Bob

to pay the bill.

to write a check.

to go to the store.

 ·          “Buy me a newspaper, please” [A1]           

 I told him to buy me a newspaper.[A2] 

            ·          “Turn off the lights, please.” [A3]  

 I asked Helen to turn off the lights.[A4] 

               ·         “Don’t go out” [A5]                                   

 She told Terry not to go out[A6] .

            ·          “Be at the meeting on time.”  [A7]            

 The boss told us to be at the meeting on time.[A8] 

           

 

Indirect Speech (Simple Present Tense)

(Dolaylı Anlatım: Geniş Zaman)

 “Indirect  Speech” başka bir insanın söylediğini aktarmaktır. Buna  “Reported speech” de denir. Konuşmacının sözleri kelimesi kelimesine aktarılmaz, bazı değişiklikler yapılır. Present Tense fiilleri Past Tense fiillerine çevrilir. “That” kelimesinin kullanımı isteğe bağlıdır. Yani istenirse atılabilir.

 

·          Ken: Jack, I’m sorry for the accident. [A9]             

Ken told Jack (that) he was sorry for the accident[A10] .                                                    

 ·          Mike: I have some bad news.[A11]                                                 

Mike told him (that) he had some bad news[A12] .

 

 ·          My father: The car needs a tune up[A13] .              

My father told me (that) the car needed a tune up.[A14]   

 Indirect Speech: Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense

(Dolaylı Anlatım : Şimdiki Zaman)

 “Indirect Speech” dolaylı anlatım anlamına gelir. Bir kimsenin söylemiş olduğu sözü başka bir kimseye aktarmaktır. Sözü söyleyenin cümlesi Şimdiki Zaman’dan (Present Progressive Tense), Sürekli Geçmiş Zaman’a (Past Progressive) çevrilir. Yani cümlenin fiili, zaman bakımından bir basamak geçmişe gider

·          Ann: I’m going to the coast this weekend[A15] .                  

Ann said that she was going to the    coast this weekend.[A16] 

 ·          Ali: I am learning English.[A17] 

Ali said that he was learning English.[A18] 

 Indirect Speech : Simple Past Tense

(Geçmiş Zaman)

 Dolaysız Anlatım (“reported speech” ya da “indirect speech”) birisinin söylediği cümleyi aktarmaya denir. Konuşma dilinde kullanılır. Eğer aktarılan eylem geçmişte yapılmış ise, cümle geçmiş zaman olur. Bahsedilen zamandan bir önceki geçmiş zamanla ifade edilir. Bir ifade veya soru geçmiş zamanda aktarıldığında cümlenin yapısında iki değişiklik meydana gelir. Eylemin (fiil) zamanı “Simple Past Tense” den “Past Perfect Tense”e  dönüşür.

      ·          Jane said, “Jim joined the Army.”[A19]                               

Jane said Jim had joined the army. [A20]                            

 ·          Did Anne attend the meeting?” Al asked[A21] .      

Al asked  if Anne had attended the meeting.[A22]  

 ·          Jim said, “I joined the army.”[A23]                          

Jim said that he had joined the army.[A24] 

                                              

·          Al asked, “Did you attend the meeting, Anne?”[A25]          

Al asked Anne whether she had attended the meeting.[A26]                     

 ·          Anne said, “Yes , I went to the meeting.”[A27]                   

Anne: I told Al that I had gone to the meeting.[A28]         

 Indirect Speech: Past Progressive (Continuous) Tense

(Sürekli Geçmiş Zaman)

Dolaylı Anlatım (Indirect Speech) birisinin söylediği cümleyi aktarmaya denir. Genellikle konuşma dilinde kullanılır.  Dolaylı aktarım (Indirect Speech) cümlelerinde iki adet eylem vardır. Bu eylemlerden daha önce gerçekleşeni (Past Progressive) ile ifade edilir. Sürekli Geçmiş Zaman (Past Progressive) ile ifade edilen eylemin üzerine ortaya çıkan eylem ise Geçmiş Zaman (Simple Past) ile ifade edilir.

 

·          Serkan: I was running when ilker called.[A29] 

               Serkan told me (that) he had been running when İlker called.[A30] 

 

 

Indirect Speech: Present Perfect Tense

(Dolaylı Anlatım :  Şimdiki Bitmiş Zaman)

 

Dolaylı Anlatım (Indirect Speech) birisinin söylediği cümleyi bir başkasına aktarmaya denir. Genellikle konuşma dilinde kullanılır. Şimdiki Bitmiş Zaman ile kurulan bir cümle dolaylı olarak aktarıldığı zaman bir derece geçmişi olan Geçmişte Bitmiş Zaman (Past Perfect Tense) ile ifade edilir.

 ·          John    : Have you ever seen a giraffe?[A31]                       

Tim       : No, I have never seen one before[A32] .                

Jack     : What did John ask you?[A33]                                

Tim       : He asked if I had ever seen a giraffe[A34] .

                                                                                   
·          Hakan said, "I have visited London twice’’[A35] .                                                               

He said (that) he had visited London twice. [A36]                                                                                     

 ·          Mary said, ‘’ I have finished my homework’’.               (Mary,  “Ben ödevimi bitirdim.’’ dedi.

Mary said (that) she had finished her homework.       (Mary ödevini bitirdiğini söyledi.)

           

 Indirect Speech: Reported Present Perfect Progressive

(Dolaylı Anlatım: Geçmişte Başlayıp Hala Devam Eden Zaman)

 Geçmişte başlayıp hala devam eden zamanla kurulan cümleler ve sorular dolaylı olarak anlatılırken, cümledeki esas fiilin zamanı, “Past Perfect Continuous Tense” ile değiştirilir.

 ·          Ayan said, “I have been teaching English for five years.” [A37]                               

Ayan said that he had been teaching English for five years[A38] .                          

 ·          Kaya said, “My mother has been living in Fıstıkağacı since 1970.” [A39]                  

Kaya said that his mother had been    living in Fıstıkağacı since 1970.[A40]                       

 ·          Paris: Romeo, how long have you been reading this book? [A41]                           

Paris asked Romeo how long he had been reading that book.[A42]                                   

 ·          Miss Coffee: Bridget, why has your sister been crying for a long time?[A43]                      

Miss Coffee asked Bridget why her sister had been crying for a long time.[A44]                 

 ·          Steven: Jack, have you been waiting for me in the classroom?[A45] 

Steven asked Jack if he had been waiting for him in the classroom.[A46]                           

 Indirect Speech: Reported Past Perfect and Past Perfect Progressive

(Dolaylı Anlatım: Geçmişte Bitmiş Zaman ve Sürekli Geçmişte Bitmiş Zamanın Dolaylı Anlatımı)

 

Geçmişte bitmiş zaman ve sürekli geçmişte bitmiş zamanlı bir cümleyi dolaylı olarak anlatırken, cümlenin zamanı değiştirilmez. İstenirse “that” eklenebilir. Kişi zamirleri ve sahiplik belirten sıfatlar değişir. Sorular, düz cümle biçimine getirilir. Cevabı “evet-hayır” olan sorular, düz cümle şekline getirilirken “if” ya da “whether” eklenir.

 ·          Kylie: I had driven a sports car before I bought this motorbike[A47] .                               

Kylie said that she had driven a sports car before she bought that motorbike. [A48]         

·          Britney: I had been doing my homework before Sam called.[A49]                          

Britney said that she had been doing her homework before Sam called [A50]                    

·          Tom: Jack, where had you been living  you before moved to Italy?[A51]                           

Tom asked Jack where he had been living before he moved to Italy.[A52]                          

 ·          Maria: Anna, had your father bought a new car by the time he retired?[A53]                                

Maria asked Anna if (whether) her father had bought a new car by the time he retired.[A54]       

 Reported Speech with Modals

(Yardımcı Fiillerle Dolaylı Anlatım)

 Değişikliğe  Uğramayan Yardımcı Fiiller

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

 ought to                          

 ought to                          

 should

 should

 used to

 used to

 would

 would

 must

 must

 was/were going to

 was/were going to

 Değişikliğe Uğrayan Yardımcı Fiiller

 will

 would

 can

 could

 may

 might

 ·          Susan  : You ought to buy a new car, dad[i55] .                

What did Susan tell his father?[i56]                      

She told him that he ought to buy a new car.[i57]            

 ·          Mr. Yılmaz : I used to play football every Sunday.[i58]      

What did Mr. Yılmaz say?[i59]                                                         

He said that he used to play football every Sunday.[i60]   

 ·          The doctor told my father that he must  lose weight. [i61]                                                          

 ·          We should study for the test.                                   

He told me that we should study for the test[i62] .    

           ·          I can’t remember her name. [i63]                                       

I told you (that) I couldn’t remember her name.[i64]                                                                   

 ·          Mom: We may go to Aunt Julie’s house for dinner. [i65]                                                   

Carl: What did Mom say? [i66]                                           

Sandy: She said that we might go to  Aunt Julie’s house for dinner.[i67]                         

 ·          Jones: You will  leave thirty minutes early today. [i68]       

He said that he would leave thirty minutes  early today. [i69]                                                      

 

 

Özet

Aman

to

Mehmet: "I work in the garden."

Mehmet said that he worked in the garden.

Mehmet: "I worked in the garden."

Mehmet said that he had worked in the garden.

Mehmet: "I have worked in the garden."

Mehmet: "I had worked in the garden."

Mehmet: "I will work in the garden."

Mehmet said that he would work in the garden.

Mehmet: "I can work in the garden."

Mehmet said that he could work in the garden.

Mehmet: "I may work in the garden."

Mehmet said that he might work in the garden.

Mehmet: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)

Mehmet: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)

Progressive forms

Mehmet: "I'm working in the garden."

Mehmet said that he was working in the garden.

Mehmet: "I was working in the garden."

Mehmet said that he had been working in the garden.

Mehmet: "I have been working in the garden."

Mehmet: "I had been working in the garden."

Zaman ifadeleri reported yapılırken değiştirilebilmekedir.

Mehmet: "I worked in the garden yesterday."
Mehmet said that he had worked in the garden the day before.

Zaman Değişimi

this (evening)

that (evening)

today/this day

that day

these (days)

those (days)

now

then

(a week) ago

(a week) before

last weekend

the weekend before / the previous weekend

here

there

next (week)

the following (week)

tomorrow

the next/following day

 
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